Covid-19 news: Cases surge in Seychelles despite high vaccination rate

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MAHE ISLAND, SEYCHELLES – APRIL 8, 2021: A woman holding an umbrella walks in a street in capital Victoria.

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Latest coronavirus news as of 5pm on 5 May

The Seychelles reintroduces covid-19 restrictions despite high levels of vaccination

Restrictions to curb the spread of covid-19 have been reintroduced in the Seychelles due to rising cases, despite over 60 per cent of the population having been fully vaccinated. There are about 1000 active cases in the Indian Ocean archipelago, which has a population of 100,000. A third of the cases involve people who have had two vaccine doses, according to the country’s news agency. Schools have been ordered to close, shops and bars must close early and some gatherings have been banned. 

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The Seychelles has fully vaccinated more of its population than any other nation. Around 60 per cent of vaccine doses used in the country were made by the Chinese company Sinopharm, and the rest by AstraZeneca. “It is fair to say that high vaccination rates alone are not necessarily enough to stop a surge in cases”, mathematician Christina Pagel at University College London said on Twitter. 

World Health Organization experts have expressed confidence that Sinopharm’s vaccine is effective at preventing covid-19 illness, but low confidence in the quality of evidence showing it has a low risk of severe side effects, according to a Reuters report.

Other coronavirus news

The UK government has pledged an extra £29.3 million towards research on coronavirus vaccines. The money will be invested in the Porton Down laboratories, enabling a doubling in their capacity to test blood samples to monitor the effectiveness of vaccines. “This new investment will help us stay one step ahead of the virus by doubling our capacity to test vaccine effectiveness against emerging variants,” said Jenny Harries, chief executive at the UK Health Security Agency, in a news release

India’s daily death toll continues to climb, with another 3780 deaths related to covid-19 reported today. According to the World Health Organization’s weekly epidemiological report, India accounted for 46 per cent of cases and 25 per cent of deaths worldwide in the past week. India’s delegation at the G7 meeting in London was forced to self-isolate after two members tested positive for the virus. 

The crisis in India has spread to Nepal, where 44 per cent of tests are showing positive results and many hospitals are overrun with covid-19 patients, according to the Nepal Red Cross Society. 

Brazil’s senate has approved a bill to suspend patent protection for covid-19 vaccines, tests and medications. The bill will now be considered by the lower house of congress.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.23 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 154.5 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. 

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New Scientist Weekly features updates and analysis on the latest developments in the covid-19 pandemic. Our podcast sees expert journalists from the magazine discuss the biggest science stories to hit the headlines each week – from technology and space, to health and the environment.

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Why Is Covid Killing People of Colour? is a BBC documentary, which investigates what the high covid-19 death rates in ethnic minority patients reveal about health inequality in the UK.

Panorama: The Race for a Vaccine is a BBC documentary about the inside story of the development of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine against covid-19.

Race Against the Virus: Hunt for a Vaccine is a Channel 4 documentary which tells the story of the coronavirus pandemic through the eyes of the scientists on the frontline.

The New York Times is assessing the progress in development of potential drug treatments for covid-19, and ranking them for effectiveness and safety.

Humans of COVID-19 is a project highlighting the experiences of key workers on the frontline in the fight against coronavirus in the UK, through social media.

Belly Mujinga: Searching for the Truth is a BBC Panorama investigation of the death of transport worker Belly Mujinga from covid-19, following reports she had been coughed and spat on by a customer at London’s Victoria Station.

Coronavirus, Explained on Netflix is a short documentary series examining the coronavirus pandemic, the efforts to fight it and ways to manage its mental health toll.

COVID-19: The Pandemic that Never Should Have Happened, and How to Stop the Next One by Debora Mackenzie is about how the pandemic happened and why it will happen again if we don’t do things differently in future.

The Rules of Contagion is about the new science of contagion and the surprising ways it shapes our lives and behaviour. The author, Adam Kucharski, is an epidemiologist at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK, and in the book he examines how diseases spread and why they stop.

Previous updates

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4 May

UK expected to release “green list” of countries for non-essential travel this week

People in the UK may be able to travel to Europe within weeks, as ministers are reportedly considering which countries would be on the UK’s initial “green list” for non-essential travel. The list of countries, from which returning travellers won’t be required to self-isolate, is expected to be released this week. It is illegal for people in the UK to travel abroad for a holiday until 17 May. “We will be able to confirm ahead of the 17th at the earliest what measures are used for those initial countries that are available for travel,” UK trade minister Liz Truss told Sky News on 4 May. The initial list is only expected to include about 10 countries, but Spain, France and Greece are among those that could be added to the list by the end of June, the Telegraph reported. On 3 May, UK prime minister Boris Johnson said putting too many countries on the list would risk an “influx of disease”.

European Union leaders are discussing plans for allowing non-essential travel to the bloc from outside countries. Under a proposal put forward by the European Commission on 3 May, fully vaccinated people or those travelling from countries with low enough case numbers would be able to travel to the EU for non-essential reasons. It isn’t yet known if the UK would be included.

Other coronavirus news

India has recorded more than 20 million coronavirus cases since the start of the pandemic, although this is likely to be an underestimate. More than 355,000 new cases were reported on 4 May, down from more than 400,000 daily new cases on 30 April. However, testing numbers have also fallen. Hospitals in India remain overwhelmed, with continuing oxygen shortages. New restrictions have been imposed in many states, with the northern state of Bihar one of the latest to announce a full lockdown.

Nepal is in urgent need of at least 1.6 million doses of the Oxford/AstraZeneca covid-19 vaccine for people who are due to receive their second dose. “People who have already got the first dose will be in difficulty if they don’t receive their second dose within the stipulated time,” said Samir Adhikari, an official from Nepal’s health ministry in Kathmandu. The country is appealing to other nations and international organisations to help supply the required doses.

A study, which analysed health records of 17 million people in England during 2020, has confirmed that people from ethnic minority groups were at an increased risk from covid-19 during the first and second waves of the epidemic compared to white people. The research, published in the scientific journal the Lancet, found that disparities for covid-19 hospital admissions and deaths narrowed for most ethnic minority groups compared to white ethnic groups between the first and second waves, but that disparities between white and South Asian groups widened over the same time period.

The US Food and Drug Administration is expected to authorise the Pfizer/BioNTech covid-19 vaccine for use in adolescents aged 12 to 15 by early next week, the New York Times reported.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.21 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 153.6 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 608.7 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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Pfizer vaccine

A nurse prepares a syringe with a dose of the Pfizer-BioNtech Covid-19 vaccine.

FRED TANNEAU/AFP via Getty Images

30 April

Single dose of Pfizer vaccine may not generate sufficient immune response against coronavirus variants

Most people in the UK who have received a coronavirus vaccine have so far only gotten a single dose, which may not produce a sufficient immune response against new variants if the person hasn’t already had covid-19. 

Danny Altmann at Imperial College London and his team studied blood samples from UK healthcare workers who had either received one dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, previously been infected with the coronavirus or both. They found that people who had previously had a mild or asymptomatic infection produced a stronger neutralising antibody response against the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants after a single dose of vaccine, compared to people who hadn’t previously been infected but who had received one dose of vaccine. 

This suggests that people who have had their first dose of vaccine, and haven’t had a prior coronavirus infection, may not be fully protected against these variants, said Altmann at a press briefing on 30 April. “For a country like the UK, which has the majority of its vaccinated people on one dose and also has an eye on the horizon for variants of concern, that’s a potential vulnerability,” said Altmann. He said it will therefore be important to ensure that people in the UK get their second dose of vaccine. The results are published in the scientific journal Science.

Other coronavirus news

Coronavirus infections in England have fallen for the third consecutive week, according to the latest results from a random swab testing survey by the Office for National Statistics. An estimated one in 1010 people were infected in England in the week up to 24 April, down from one in 610 the previous week. “This continued decline is good news and should be celebrated,” said Rowland Kao at the University of Edinburgh in a statement. But Kao said it will be important to continue monitoring infections as it may still be too early to see the impact of easing restrictions and of new coronavirus variants on infections. In Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales the estimated incidences of infection during the same period were one in 940, one in 640 and one in 570 respectively. 

On 29 April, the UK’s medicines regulator released data on the incidence of a rare blood clotting disorder in people who received the Oxford/AstraZeneca covid-19 vaccine across different age groups. As of 21 April, there had been 23 cases among people aged 18 to 29, 27 cases among people aged 30 to 39, 30 among those aged 40 to 49, 59 cases in people aged 50 to 59 and 58 cases among people 60 and older. In total there had been 209 cases, including 41 deaths, among about 22 million people who had received a dose of the vaccine by the same point in time. It emphasised that the benefits of the vaccine continue to outweigh the risks in the majority of people.

All people over the age of 40 in England are now being invited to book covid-19 vaccine appointments. More than 34 million people across the UK had received a first dose of a covid-19 vaccine as of 29 April, and more than 14 million people about 20 per cent of the UK population had received two doses.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.16 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 150.6 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 587.6 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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Feet standing on a weighing scale.

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29 April

Higher BMI linked to increased risk of severe covid-19, particularly in younger people

An analysis of health records from almost 7 million people in England indicates that increases in body mass index (BMI) are associated with increased risk of severe outcomes with covid-19, including hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission and death. The study, published in The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, found that the association was strongest for younger adults under 40 and stronger among Black people compared to white people. The risk of severe disease increased as BMI went up among those with a BMI of 23 or above. According to the NHS, a BMI of 25 or above is considered overweight and a BMI of 30 or above is in the obese range. Age remains the biggest risk factor for developing severe covid-19 and dying from it. 

The findings add to growing evidence that excess body weight is a risk factor for severe covid-19, said Naveed Sattar at the University of Glasgow, UK, in a statement. “Whether the findings mean people who are living with obesity should get vaccines earlier should be looked at by relevant authorities,” said Sattar. “The more important question is whether helping people lose weight will lessen their chances of severe complications in subsequent waves. The overwhelming evidence, aided by this study, suggests this would be the case.”

Other coronavirus news

The European Union parliament approved a proposal for a temporary “EU covid-19 certificate” to prove that a person has been vaccinated against covid-19, recovered from the disease or recently tested negative for the coronavirus. It said EU countries “should ensure universal, accessible, timely and free of charge testing” to avoid discrimination against unvaccinated individuals. The UK and other countries are also considering the use of so-called vaccine passports. In February, Israel rolled out a green pass in the form of a QR code that people can present as proof they have been vaccinated, which some businesses and places of worship ask for as a condition of entry. However, concerns remain about how long protection from vaccines will last and whether boosters will be necessary.

Pfizer and BioNTech plan to apply for EU approval of their covid-19 vaccine for use in children aged 12 to 15 next week. The vaccine has already been approved for such use in the US. 

India reported 379,257 new coronavirus cases on 29 April and 3645 new deaths from covid-19, a new record for deaths in a single day. Elections in India are going ahead despite the current crisis

Turkey will enter its first full nationwide lockdown in the evening of 29 April in an effort to combat rising coronavirus cases. 

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.15 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 149.7 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 577.8 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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Funeral pyres burn as the last rites are performed of the patients who died of the Covid-19 coronavirus at a cremation ground in Allahabad

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28 April

Covid-19 deaths in India exceed 200,000

India continues to be engulfed by its second wave of covid-19, with cumulative deaths hitting a sobering milestone of 201,187. The country is fourth only to Mexico, Brazil and the United States for the highest numbers of deaths.

India again broke a global record for the highest number of cases in a day, with 360,960 reported in the past 24 hours. The figures are believed to be an underestimate, despite ramped-up testing. Hospitals and crematoriums are still struggling with the surge, with reports of oxygen shortages continuing despite aid by companies and other countries.

Doctors in an open letter in the BMJ journal today said that “mass gatherings need to stop urgently” in India, and the country’s government should consider whether to delay elections in favour of a lockdown. The authors said the “scale of need is almost immeasurable”.

In response to the crisis, the Indian government today opened registrations for everyone aged 18 and up to receive vaccination doses from Saturday. India has lagged behind other countries in the roll-out of its vaccination programme, with just 10.5 vaccine does given per 100 people, compared to 18.7 in Brazil and 69.3 in the UK. 

Other coronavirus news

India’s surge is driving the pandemic’s growth, with the World Health Organization reporting new cases have now increased worldwide for the ninth week in a row. Nearly 5.7 million new cases were reported last week, and more than 87,000 deaths, according to a new WHO report.

Vaccination programmes continue to create international tensions. Yesterday Brazil’s health regulator rejected imports of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine, on the grounds there was a lack of data on its safety and efficacy. That sparked an angry response from Russia’s sovereign wealth fund, which markets the vaccine – the Russian Direct Investment Fund called the decision “politically motivated.”

The EU had more positive news, with European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen today announcing a new contract with Pfizer/BioNTech would be agreed in the “next few days” to deliver 1.8 billion doses between 2021 and 2023. The UK has also ordered 60 million more doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in preparation for a booster programme in the autumn. The European Commission took the step this week of starting legal action against AstraZeneca over the rate at which it has supplied vaccines.

Meanwhile, new research published today by Public Health England found one dose of either the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine reduced household transmission of covid-19 by between 40 and 50 per cent. The cut in transmission was detected at 14 days after vaccination, and follows “real world” evidence of how effectively the vaccines cut symptomatic infection and severe illness. The UK government also confirmed a National Health Service covid-19 app will be used for international travellers to demonstrate their testing and vaccination status.  

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.13 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 148.8 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. 

coronavirus india

Patients breath with the help of oxygen masks inside a banquet hall converted into a Covid-19 ward in New Delhi.

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27 April

Ventilators and oxygen concentrators arrive in India from the UK

International aid has started arriving in India, including a flight from the UK carrying vital medical supplies. Ventilators and oxygen concentrators from the UK landed in Delhi on 27 April but India is still in need of far more supplies, with many hospitals overwhelmed with covid-19 patients amid a devastating second wave. Six oxygen containers will be flown to India from Dubai on 27 April, and the US and European Commission have both said they would send oxygen and medicine. Zarir Udwadia, a health adviser to the government in India, told the BBC’s Today programme he is currently seeing “ward after ward full of patients struggling to breathe”. Udwadia said that during the crisis demand for covid-19 vaccines in India has risen, with long lines of people outside medical centres trying to get shots. On 26 April, the Biden administration said that the US will share up to 60 million doses from its Oxford/AstraZeneca covid-19 vaccine supply globally as they become available. India expects to secure the majority of the doses, two Indian government sources told Reuters.

India reported 323,144 new coronavirus cases on 27 April, down only slightly from a peak of 352,991 the previous day. In Delhi, makeshift pyres are being constructed in crematoriums as the city is running out of space to cremate its dead. Delhi reported 380 deaths on 26 April, although the true figures are likely to be significantly higher. An investigation by broadcaster NDTV found at least 1150 additional deaths that were not included in Delhi’s official tally in the week up to 24 April.

Other coronavirus news

Weekly deaths from covid-19 across England and Wales have fallen to their lowest level since October, according to the latest figures from the Office for National Statistics. There were 362 deaths mentioning covid-19 on the death certificate in the week up to 16 April, a decrease from 345 the previous week. It is the lowest number of weekly covid-19 deaths recorded in England and Wales since the week ending 2 October, when 321 deaths were recorded. “This emphasises the impact of vaccines on covid-19 deaths,” said Kevin McConway at the Open University in the UK in a statement. More than 33.7 million people across the UK had received a first dose of a covid-19 vaccine as of 26 April and more than 12.8 million people had received two doses of vaccine.

The B.1.617 coronavirus variant first identified in India has been detected in Fiji. The country has managed to avoid significant community transmission of the coronavirus so far, recording a total of 109 cases and two deaths among its population of about 930,000 people. But James Fong, Fiji’s health secretary, warned that the presence of the new variant could result in a “tsunami” of cases. Fiji, the Philippines and Australia are among the latest countries to announce restrictions on travel from India.

All people aged 42 and over in England are now able to book covid-19 vaccination appointments, in a further extension of the vaccine rollout.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.12 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 147.9 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 562.3 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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Previous updates

Coronavirus india

A patient wearing an oxygen mask looks on as his wife holds a battery-operated fan while waiting inside an auto-rickshaw to enter a COVID-19 hospital for treatment, amidst the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Ahmedabad, India, April 25, 2021.

REUTERS/Amit Dave

26 April

Countries deploy medical supplies to India amid critical oxygen shortages

Foreign governments are deploying resources to India in an effort to help the country cope with oxygen shortages amid surging coronavirus infections, hospitalisations and deaths. India reported a record increase in daily new coronavirus cases for the fifth consecutive day on 26 April, with a rise of 352,991 cases. The UK has begun sending ventilators and oxygen concentrator devices to India, and the US and European Commission both said they planned to send oxygen and medicine. European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen said the commission was “pooling resources to respond rapidly to India’s request for assistance”. Neighbouring Pakistan is also sharing medical equipment and supplies. 

The director of India’s Institute of Medical Sciences has appealed to people not to hoard medical supplies in private homes. “Hoarding of injections like remdesivir and oxygen in homes is creating a panic and this hoarding is causing a shortage of these medicines,” Randeep Guleria said in a statement released by India’s ministry of health on 25 April. 

On 24 April, Twitter confirmed it had complied with requests from India’s government to censor 52 tweets, many of which were critical of its handling of the country’s second wave. The move prompted further criticism of the government on social media.

Other coronavirus news

The European Union has launched legal action against AstraZeneca, which it alleges breached a contract concerning its supply of covid-19 vaccines to the bloc. “The European Commission has started last Friday legal action against the company AstraZeneca on the basis of breach of the advanced purchase agreement,” said a spokesperson from the European Commission on 26 April. In response, AstraZeneca said it “has fully complied with the advance purchase agreement with the European Commission and will strongly defend itself in court”.

All people aged between 35 and 39 are now eligible for covid-19 vaccination in Northern Ireland. In England, the covid-19 vaccine rollout has been extended to all 44-year-olds. Across the UK, more than 33.6 million people had received a first dose of covid-19 vaccine as of 25 April and more than 12.5 million people had received two doses of vaccine. The gap in covid-19 vaccine uptake between white people and people from ethnic minority groups in England remains but has fallen slightly in recent months, the Financial Times reported. 

On 23 April, France became the first country to donate covid-19 vaccine doses from its domestic supply to the World Health Organization-led COVAX platform, a global platform for sharing vaccines equitably.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.11 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 147.2 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 555.1 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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People wait to cross a street before a screen showing Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga speaking during a press conference to announce a new coronavirus state of emergency covering Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto and Hyogo regions, in Tokyo on April 23, 2021. (Photo by Philip FONG / AFP) (Photo by PHILIP FONG/AFP via Getty Images)

Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga speaking during a press conference to announce a new coronavirus state of emergency covering Tokyo, Osaka, Kyoto and Hyogo regions.

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23 April

Japan to declare a state of emergency in big cities to try to halt a rise in cases ahead of the Olympics

With coronavirus case numbers rising three months before the Olympics are due to begin, Japan will declare a state of emergency in big cities including Tokyo, Osaka and Kyoto between 25 April and 11 May. This will allow the government to impose restrictions such as a ban on the sale of alcohol at all venues and the closure of many entertainment venues such as cinemas. People will be asked to work from home but schools will remain open. The restrictions cover the Golden Week holiday period when many people usually travel.

“If the Olympics are really going to be held in July, I think the infections need to settle down by late May or early June,” Haruka Sakamoto, a public health researcher at the University of Tokyo told the The Japan Times. “Therefore, the government is making stronger interventions relatively early on.”

Japan has been more successful at limiting the spread of the virus than many other countries. It has reported around 550,000 cases and 10,000 deaths, compared with 4.4 million cases and 130,000 deaths in the UK. It is currently reporting 36 cases per million people per day, compared with 37 in the UK, 200 in India, 250 in Germany and 700 in Turkey. However, new variants are spreading despite some local restrictions imposed after another state of emergency ended earlier this year. 

Other coronavirus news

Australia is imposing a three-day lockdown in Perth and the adjoining Peel region after a person who tested positive for covid-19 visited various sites in the region. The individual had been in hotel quarantine and tested negative at the end of it. But another test done five days later was positive.

A single dose of either the Oxford/AstraZeneca or Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine reduces the risk of infection by two-thirds, according to an analysis of the test results of 350,000 people in the UK in the past few months. From 21 days after the dose, people were 57 per cent less likely to get asymptomatic infections and 72 per cent less likely to get symptomatic infections compared with those who had not been vaccinated.

India has reported 332,730 new daily coronavirus cases, setting a new global record for a second successive day. Hospitals in New Delhi are pleading with the government for more oxygen supplies and saying they may not be able to admit new patients.

Some mass vaccination sites in the US are being closed down as demand falls, according to The New York Times. More than half of adults in the US have now had at least one vaccine dose. “We got about 50 per cent of our people vaccinated,” the chief public health officer in Galveston County, Texas, told the paper. “We recognise that next 25 per cent is going to be a lot harder than the first.”

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 3.08 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 144.9 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 534 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

Latest on coronavirus from New Scientist

Oxford/AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine researchers have developed a malaria vaccine shown to be 77 per cent effective in trials – the highest level ever achieved – offering hope of controlling a disease that kills an estimated 400,000 people each year.

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Nigambodh Ghat crematorium during the cremation of multiple Covid-19 victims, on April 21, 2021 in New Delhi, India.

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22 April

The 314,835 new cases reported by India on Thursday is the highest daily rate ever in any country

India reported 314,835 new coronavirus cases on Thursday, the highest daily number reported by any country since the pandemic began. According to the New York Times, the previous record was 300,669, reported by the US on 8 January. The true number of cases could be 20 to 30 times higher than the reported figures, meaning up to 9 million people are being infected in India every day. Last week, Gautam Menon at Ashoka University in India told New Scientist that he expected case numbers to keep increasing for another two or three weeks at least.

While India’s reported case numbers are the highest in the world, in terms of reported cases per million people it is only now overtaking countries such as the US, Germany and Canada, with around 200 cases per million per day. Turkey is reporting more than 700 cases per million per day, and Cyprus nearly 900. In October and January, Czechia reported around 1200 per million per day.

Other coronavirus news

The global scheme for sharing vaccines equitably, Covax, has so far delivered only a fifth of the doses of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine it estimated countries would have by May, according to an analysis by the Guardian newspaper. Some countries, such as Bangladesh and Pakistan, have not received any doses via Covax so far. The problem is that the Serum Institute of India has produced fewer vaccine doses than it projected, which it blames on US export bans on key ingredients. India has also restricted vaccine exports as case numbers surge.

Covid-19 is no longer the leading cause of death in England and Wales, according to the UK’s Office of National Statistics. In England, 10 per cent of deaths in March were due to dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. In Wales, 12 per cent of deaths were due to heart diseases. Covid-19 caused only 9 per cent of deaths in both nations. Case numbers continue to fall in England, according to Public Health England.

A study claiming that smokers are 23 per cent less likely to get covid-19 than non-smokers has been retracted by the European Respiratory Journal after it emerged that two of the authors had undeclared links with the tobacco industry. “It was brought to the editors’ attention that two of the authors had failed to disclose potential conflicts of interest,” the journal states.

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Julie Fletcher administers a dose of AstraZeneca/Oxford Covid-19 vaccine to housebound patient Gillian Marriott

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21 April

Research shows vaccines are working well at preventing hospital admissions in UK 

Further encouraging results have emerged on the effectiveness of the coronavirus vaccines used in the UK. Only 32 people have been admitted to hospital with covid-19 more than three weeks after receiving at least one dose of either the Pfizer/BioNTech or Oxford/AstraZeneca jabs, a study has found. The research, which looked at more than 74,000 hospital admissions between September and early March, found that nearly 2000 of these people had received a covid-19 vaccine. But for the vast majority of these, the vaccine would not have had time to kick in, as the three weeks thought necessary for maximum immunity to develop had not elapsed. 

The research was carried out by the UK’s Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium. “This is really good real-world data showing that this vaccine works and that one dose works really well,” Calum Semple, a member of the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (Sage), told Radio 4’s Today Programme. The findings are significant because most of those who received a vaccine initially were frail and elderly people, in whom the jab is expected to work less well.

Other coronavirus news

India is experiencing oxygen shortages at hospitals as covid-19 cases continue to surge. At least 22 patients died when their oxygen supply was interrupted as a result of a leak from an oxygen tanker at Zakir Hussain Hospital in Nashik, a city in the western state of Maharashtra. There has also been looting of oxygen at a hospital in Madhya Pradesh, and in the state of Haryana, oxygen tankers are being given police protection.

Vaccine hesitancy in the UK in people in their thirties has only risen slightly since authorities said the Oxford/AstraZeneca jab is linked to a rare blood clotting syndrome. A survey by the University of Stirling found 85 per cent of 30-to-40-year-olds were planning to get the vaccine, compared with 87 per cent in a previous poll.

Counterfeit Pfizer/BioNtech covid-19 vaccines have been found in Mexico and Poland, says manufacturer Pfizer. The substance in vials seized in Poland contained an anti-wrinkle treatment.

Transmission of the coronavirus has taken place within a quarantine hotel in Perth. Two guests staying in rooms opposite each other tested positive for the virus. Initially they were thought to have caught the virus abroad, but genetic testing showed they caught it at the hotel.

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20 April

Sweden adds another layer of restrictions to the AstraZeneca jab in younger people

Sweden has said people under 65 who have had an initial dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine should get a different jab for their second dose, due to the small chance of blood clots. France also has this rule, although there the upper age limit is 55.

Many other countries have restricted use of this vaccine to people over a certain age, as a rare syndrome of blood clots coupled with low levels of platelets – particles in the blood that stick together to form clots – has mainly been seen in younger people. The syndrome is called vaccine–induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia or VITT. Most other countries, however, say those who have had one dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine should also get the second, due to the unknown effectiveness and safety of mixing vaccine types. That would be “voyaging into an evidence-free zone,” Anthony Harnden, deputy chair of the UK’s Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation said in a press conference. Several trials where vaccine types are being mixed across the two doses are ongoing. 

Sweden’s move comes as the European Medicines Agency says it has found a possible link between eight cases of a similar blood clot syndrome after people in the US had the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. The same mechanism may be responsible, as both the J&J and the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccines work by delivering  the coronavirus spike protein within a DNA-based adenovirus. The Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna vaccines use mRNA, a different kind of genetic material.

Other coronavirus news

The UK is to set up a taskforce to develop antiviral drugs against the coronavirus that could be taken at home by people who test positive for covid-19, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced today. Such medicines could also be taken by people who live with someone who has tested positive to prevent them catching the virus. “There might be a tablet you can take at home that will stop the virus in its tracks and reduce the likelihood of severe disease,” said Johnson. An inhaled asthma medicine called budesonide has already been found to shorten duration of illness with covid-19 if taken by people at higher risk due to age or health conditions. 

Cleaning surfaces to try to reduce coronavirus transmission is often a waste of time and may even be harmful, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). That’s because the virus is spread most often through tiny droplets in the air, rather than by people touching contaminated surfaces. The CDC’s Vincent Hill said in a briefing on Monday that frequent cleaning and disinfecting surfaces is merely “hygiene theatre” and could give people a false sense of security. There has been a long-running debate over the relative importance of airborne and surface transmission of the virus.

UK officials are visiting Israel to study the country’s covid-19 vaccine passport scheme, which is used to determine entry to venues such as gyms, restaurants and theatres. Cabinet office minister Michael Gove and England’s deputy chief medical officer Jonathan Van-Tam are investigating how coronavirus certification could work in the UK. Israel’s “green pass” scheme allows entry to people who have been vaccinated, have recently been infected with covid-19 or who have had a recent negative test. UK trials of vaccine passports are due to start next month at specific events, including the FA cup final.

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Covid-19

Coronavirus COVID-19 computer generated image.

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19 April

Volunteers will be exposed to the coronavirus to learn which immune components confer protection

Young adults who have recovered from covid-19 will have live coronavirus sprayed into their noses to see whether they can be reinfected as part of a new trial. The study, which is being run by  the University of Oxford, is one of two “challenge” trials in the UK. It is designed to reveal, among other things, the elusive “correlates of protection” against SARS-CoV-2– which means the levels of antibodies, T-cells and other immune system components that are required to protect people against infection. This is currently a significant gap in our understanding of the virus, and knowing the correlates of protection could lead to even more rapid vaccine development. That’s because some vaccines are approved based on whether they elicit these measures of protection, bypassing lengthy clinical trials. The other study, using volunteers who have not had covid-19, is already under way at Imperial College London.

Other coronavirus news

More people were diagnosed with covid-19 during the past seven days than any other week since the start of the pandemic, totalling more than 5.2 million globally for the week. The infection count was 12 per cent higher than the previous week. 

The Russian-made Sputnik V vaccine has shown efficacy of 97.6 per cent in real-world data from 3.8 million people who have received two doses, according to the Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology in Moscow. The results have not yet been published in a peer-reviewed medical journal.

A week-long lockdown has been imposed in Delhi, India. Chief minister Arvind Kejriwal said the measures were necessary to “prevent a collapse of the health system”. India’s rate of new infections is continuing to climb, with over 270,000 cases and 1619 deaths reported today. The UK will add India to the “red list” for travel from Friday, and prime minister Boris Johnson has cancelled a planned trip to India next week because of the country’s coronavirus situation.

Health officials in the UK are investigating whether a covid-19 variant first found in India spreads more easily and evades vaccines, after more than 70 cases were identified in England and Scotland.

The World Health Organization’s Emergency Committee has recommended that proof of vaccination should not be required as a condition of international travel. The panel cited limited evidence on whether vaccination against covid-19 reduces people’s ability to transmit the virus and “the persistent inequity in global vaccine distribution”.

Everyone aged 16 and over is now eligible for a vaccine in the US, president Joe Biden announced on Twitter. Almost 130 million people – just over half of adults in the US – have now had at least one covid-19 vaccine dose. The nationwide suspension of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine is likely to end by Friday, White House chief medical adviser Anthony Fauci told ABC News.

Climate change activist Greta Thunberg says her foundation will donate 100,000 euros to COVAX, the global initiative aiming to ensure vaccines are shared fairly between rich and poor nations.

Coronavirus deaths
As of 16 April, the worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 2.98 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 139.2 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 478.1 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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People sit in a restaurant on the roof of the Selfridges department store on Oxford street, as the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) restrictions ease

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16 April

An estimated one in 480 people in England had covid-19 in the week up to 10 April

Coronavirus infections in England have fallen to their lowest level since September, according to the latest results of a random swab testing survey by the Office for National Statistics. An estimated one in 480 people in communities in England had covid-19 in the week up to 10 April, down from about one in 340 the previous week. It is the lowest prevalence rate recorded since the week up to 24 September, during which an estimated one in 500 people had covid-19. Equivalent prevalence estimates for Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales were one in 500, one in 710 and one in 920 people, respectively, during the week up to 10 April. 

These numbers for England are “encouraging”, said James Naismith at the University of Oxford in a statement. “The lockdown has worked as expected as has the vaccination campaign,” he said, adding that robust testing and sequencing to identify coronavirus variant cases remain vital.

A total of 77 cases of a new coronavirus variant first detected in India were recorded in the UK as of 14 April, according to Public Health England. The new variant, called B.1.617, contains two types of mutation, each of which have been found separately in other coronavirus variants. These mutations may make the variant more infectious and boost its ability to escape the body’s immune responses.

Other coronavirus news

The world is seeing a “worrying” rise in coronavirus infections, World Health Organization director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said on 16 April. “Globally, the number of new cases per week has nearly doubled over the past two months. This is approaching the highest rate of infection that we have seen so far during the pandemic,” he said at a briefing. More than 139.2 million coronavirus cases have been confirmed worldwide since the start of the pandemic, with the global covid-19 death toll approaching 3 million, according to Johns Hopkins University.

Pfizer’s CEO, Albert Bourla, has said it is likely that people will need a third covid-19 vaccine dose within six to 12 months after they are first vaccinated, with a requirement for annual jabs also a possibility. “Variants will play a key role,” he said.

Germany’s chancellor Angela Merkel urged lawmakers on 16 April to approve new powers that would enable her to impose coronavirus lockdowns and curfews on areas with high infection rates. Daily new case numbers in Germany are rapidly approaching those seen during the peak of its second wave in January.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 2.98 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 139.2 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 478.1 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

Virus Outbreak Tokyo Olympics, Suita, Japan - 14 Apr 2021 The last Olympic torch relay runner for the Osaka leg concludes the event in Suita, north of Osaka, western Japan

Virus Outbreak Tokyo Olympics, Suita, Japan – 14 Apr 2021 The last Olympic torch relay runner for the Osaka leg concludes the event in Suita, north of Osaka, western Japan

Hiro Komae/AP/Shutterstock

15 April

As Japan battles fourth wave of infections, official says cancelling the Olympics is still an option

An official from Japan’s ruling party has said that cancelling the Olympics, scheduled to take place in Tokyo at the end of July, remains an option and will depend on the coronavirus situation. “If it seems impossible [to host the Olympics] anymore, then we have to stop it, decisively,” Toshihiro Nikai, a member of Japan’s Liberal Democratic Party, told broadcaster TBS. He added: “If the Olympics were to spread infection, then what are the Olympics for?” Government and organising officials have previously said the postponed event would go ahead, but without international spectators.

The fresh doubts about hosting the Olympics come as Japan is grappling with a fourth wave of coronavirus infections. Japan’s western region of Osaka reported a record daily increase of 1099 infections on 13 April, with the surge thought to be driven largely by the B.1.1.7 coronavirus variant first identified in the UK. “The situation, with pressure on hospital beds, is severe. I have a strong sense of crisis about it,” Japan’s economy minister, Yasutoshi Nishimura, who is overseeing the country’s pandemic response, told Reuters.

Other coronavirus news

Approximately 4.7 million people were waiting for routine operations and procedures in England in February, which is the highest number since 2007, according to NHS England figures. Almost 388,000 people had been waiting for more than a year for a non-urgent surgery compared with just 1600 people before the pandemic. “We’re going to make sure that we give the NHS all the funding that it needs – as we’ve done throughout the pandemic to beat the backlog,” said UK prime minister Boris Johnson during a visit to Britannia Royal Naval College in Dartmouth on 15 April. NHS England recently announced a £1 billion fund to go towards helping trusts to restore operations and other services.

The number of positive coronavirus tests in England fell by 34 per cent in the week up to 7 April, according to the latest figures from NHS Test and Trace. 19,196 people tested positive for the virus, continuing a downward trend in positive tests observed since the week up to 6 January, NHS Test and Trace said in its report. 

Mass testing for the B.1.351 coronavirus variant, first identified in South Africa, is being carried out in six London boroughs as well as in parts of Smethwick in the West Midlands in England, after a new case was detected there.

More than 200,000 new coronavirus cases were reported in India on 15 April, the highest daily case rate in the country since the pandemic began. Some hospitals, including those in the state of Maharashtra, have reported shortages of beds and oxygen supplies. India’s second wave of infections appears to be driven mainly by the more transmissible B.1.1.7 coronavirus variant.

Coronavirus deaths

The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 2.97 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 138.4 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 468 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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People rest in the waiting area after receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine at a vaccination centre in Salisbury Cathedral

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14 April

A single dose of Pfizer or AstraZeneca covid-19 vaccine produced strong immune responses among over-80s in a preliminary study

Both the Pfizer/BioNTech and Oxford/AstraZeneca covid-19 vaccines produced a strong immune response after a single dose in people aged over 80 in a preliminary study. It showed that 93 per cent of people had produced coronavirus-specific antibodies after receiving the Pfizer vaccine and 87 per cent of people after receiving the AstraZeneca jab. This was the first study to compare the performance of the two vaccines.

Those who received the AstraZeneca vaccine showed a greater T-cell response, which forms another important arm of the body’s immune response to viruses. Just 12 per cent of people who had the Pfizer vaccine developed T-cells against the coronavirus spike protein compared with 31 per cent of those who had received the AstraZeneca jab. 

Overall immune responses were much higher in people who had previously had covid-19, compared with those who hadn’t. The study was carried out by Helen Parry at the University of Birmingham, UK, and her colleagues who analysed immune responses in a group of 165 volunteers aged 80 and over, each of whom had received a single dose of either the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine five to six weeks earlier. 

Other coronavirus news

The US, the European Union and South Africa are pausing rollouts of the Johnson & Johnson covid-19 vaccine, following a small number of reports of rare blood clots in people who had received it. In the US, six cases of rare blood clots had been reported among 6.8 million people who had received the vaccine as of 13 April. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) said it is working closely with the US Food and Drug Administration and other international regulators to investigate all the cases reported and it expects to issue a recommendation next week. “While its review is ongoing, EMA remains of the view that the benefits of the vaccine in preventing COVID-19 outweigh the risks of side effects,” it said in a statement on 14 April. 

Denmark has become the first country to completely stop using the AstraZeneca vaccine, after the EMA concluded on 7 April that unusual blood clotting events should be listed as very rare side effects of the vaccine. However, the country’s health agency has not ruled out the possibility of resuming use of the vaccine in future if another wave of infections hits. Several European countries suspended use of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine in March over blood clot concerns, but many have since resumed use of the vaccine for certain age groups.

About half of people in the UK may have antibodies against the coronavirus. An estimated 54.9 per cent of people in England had antibodies against the coronavirus in the week up to 28 March, according to the Office for National Statistics (ONS). The equivalent proportions for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland were 46 per cent, 49.1 per cent and 54.5 per cent, respectively. “There is a clear pattern between vaccination and testing positive for COVID-19 antibodies but the detection of antibodies alone is not a precise measure of the immunity protection given by vaccination,” the ONS said in its report.

Coronavirus deaths
The worldwide covid-19 death toll has passed 2.96 million. The number of confirmed cases is more than 137.5 million, according to Johns Hopkins University, though the true number of cases will be much higher. According to Our World In Data, more than 459.7 million people globally have received at least one dose of a covid-19 vaccine.

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Back to the office: Returning to work in offices brings concerns over office socialising and using public transport, but working together brings mental health benefits too.

Staying safe indoors: Good ventilation is one of the most effective measures offices can take to stop the spread of coronavirus, while relying on people to change their behaviour should be a last resort.

Rare clot concerns: Johnson & Johnson covid-19 vaccines have been paused in the US after rare reports of blood clots, similar to those linked with the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine in other countries. Could the cause of the clots be the same?

India’s second wave: India’s daily coronavirus cases are currently the highest in the world, with modelling suggesting the country’s total tally could be close to 450 million.

See previous updates from March 2021, February 2021, January 2021, November/December 2020, and March to November 2020.

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